環帶綱的分類與演化

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  • Blakemore, R. J., 2004. Checklist of pheretimoid earthworms after Sims and Easton, 1972. In: Moreno, A., Borges, S. (Eds.), Avances en taxonomia de lombrices de tierra/Advances in earthworm taxonomy (Annelida: Oligochaeta). Editorial Complutense, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain, pp. 126-154.
  • Blakemore, R. J., 2006. A series of searchable texts on earthworm biodiversity, ecology and systematics from various regions of the world - 2nd edition (2006). Eds.: Kaneko, N., Ito, M.T.. COE Soil Ecology Research Group, Yokohama National University, Japan. CD-ROM.
  • Blakemore, R.J., 2008. Review of Oriental pheretimoids (Pheretima auct. Megascolecidae) with description of a new genus.In: Pavli?ek, T. and Cardet, P. (Eds.), Advances in earthworm taxonomy III (Annelida: Oligochaeta). The Environment of Service of the Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environment of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus, pp. 23-36.
  • Chang, C.-H., James, S. W., Hong, Y., Shen, H.-P., Chen, J.-H., 2007. Barcoding of earthworms: a case study of the Pheretima complex (Clitellata: Megascolecidae). Second International Barcode of Llife Conference. Taipei, P. 79.
  • Chang, C.-H., Rougerie, R., Chen, J.-H., 2009. Identifying earthworms through DNA barcodes: pitfalls and promise. Pedobiologia. Pedobiologia 52, 171-180.
  • Easton, E.G., 1979. A revision of the “acaecate” earthworms of the Pheretima group (Megascolecidae: Oligochaeta): Archipheretima, Metapheretima, Planapheretima, Pleionogaster, and Polypheretima. Bull. Br. Mus. Nat. Hist. (Zool.) 35, 1-126.
  • Easton, E. G., 1981. Japanese earthworms: a synopsis of the Megadrile species (Oligochaeta). Bulletin of the BritishMuseum of Natural History (Zoology) 40(2), 33-65.
  • Gates, G. E. 1959. On a taxonomic puzzle and the classification of the earthworms. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 121(6): 229-26l.
  • James, S.W., 2004. New genera and species of pheretimoid earthworms (Clitellata: Megascolecidae) from southern Luzon, Philippines. Systematics and Biodiversity 2(3), 271-279.
  • James, S. W., 2005. Preliminary molecular phylogeny in the Pheretima group of genera (Crassiclitellata: Megascolecidae) using Bayesian analysis. In: Pop, V.V., Pop, A.A. (Eds.), Advances in earthworm taxonomy II (Annelida: Oligochaeta). ClujUniversity Press, Cluj-Napoca, Romania, pp. 129-142.
  • Jamieson, B. G. M. 1988. On the phylogeny and higher classification of the oligochaeta (Annelida: Clitellaeta). Cladistics, 4(4), 376-401.
  • Lee, K.-E. 1959. The Earthworm Fauna of New Zealand. New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Wellington. Bulletin 130: 486.
  • Martin, P, Kaygorodova, I., Sherbakov, D. Y., Verheyen, K., 2000. Rapid evolving lineages impede the resolution of phylogenetic relationships among Clitellata (Annelida). Mol. Phylogenet. Evol.15, 355-368.
  • Omodeo P. 1958. Oligochetes. In, La reserve naturelle integrale du Mont Nimba. Memoire de la Institut Francais Afrique Noire 53:9-109.
  • Reynolds, J. W. and D. C. Cook, 1993. Nomenclatura Oligochaetologica Supplementum Tertium: A Catalogue of Names, Descriptions and Type Specimens of the Oligochaeta. Saint John, Canada: New Brunswick Museum Monographic Series (Natural Science) No. 9.
  • Siddall, M. E., Apakupakul, K., Burreson, E. M., Coates, K. A. Erseus, C., Gelder, S. R., Kallersjo, Mari., Trapido-Rosenthal, H., 2001. Validating Livanow: Molecular data agree that leeches, branchiobdellidans, and Acanthobdella peledina form a monophyletic group of oligochaetes. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 21, 346-351.
  • Sims, R. W., Easton, E. G., 1972. A numerical revision of the earthworm genus Pheretima auct. (Megascolecidae: Oligochaeta) with the recognition of new genera and an appendix on the earthworms collected by the Royal Society North Borneo Expedition. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 4, 169-268.
  • Stephenson, J., 1930. The Oligochaeta. The Claredon Press, Oxford. 978 pp.

 
台灣蚯蚓的分類、演化與多樣性
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  • 張智涵、沈慧萍、莊淑君、陳俊宏. 2008. 台灣蚯蚓研究現況與歷史回顧. 2008 台灣物種多樣性研究現況研討會. 農委會林務局、國科會生命科學研究推動中心、中央研究院生物多樣性研究中心、中華民國自然生態保育學會. 國立自然科學博物館, 台中.
  • Blakemore, R. J., Chang, C.-H., Chuang, S.-C., Ito, M. T., James, S. W., Chen, J.-H., 2006. Biodiversity of earthworms in Taiwan: a species checklist with the confirmation and new records of the exotic lumbricids Eisenia fetida and Eiseniella tetraedra. Taiwania 51(3), 226-236.
  • Chang, C.-H., 2005. Systematics, biogeography, and evolution of the earthworms in the Metaphire formosae species group inferred from morphology and mitochondrial DNA sequences. MS. Thesis, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, 101 pp. (in Chinese with English abstract).
  • Chang, C.-H., Chen, J.-H., 2004. A new species of earthworm belonging to the genus Metaphire Sims and Easton 1972 (Oligochaeta:Megascolecidae) from southern Taiwan. Taiwania 49(4), 219-224.
  • Chang, C.-H., Chen, J.-H., 2005a. Taxonomic status and intraspecific phylogeography of two sibling species of Metaphire (Oligochaeta: Megascolecidae) in Taiwan. Pedobiologia 49, 591-600.
  • Chang, C.-H., Chen, J.-H., 2005b. Three new species of octothecate pheretimoid earthworms from Taiwan, with discussion on the biogeography of related species. Journal of Natural History 39(18), 1469-1482.
  • Chang, C.-H., Chen, J.-H., 2008. Earthworm fauna of Taiwan: Metaphire formosae species group. National Taiwan University Press, Taipei, Taiwan, 60 pp.
  • Chang, C.-H., Yang, K.-W., Wu, J.-H., Chuang, S.-C., Chen, J.-H., 2001. Species composition of earthworms on the main campus of NationalTaiwanUniversity. Acta Zoologica Taiwanica 12(2), 75-81.
  • Chang, C.-H., Lin, Y.-H., Chen, I.-H., Chuang, S.-C., Chen, J.-H., 2007. Taxonomic re-evaluation of the Taiwanese montane earthworm Amynthas wulinensis Tsai, Shen and Tsai, 2001 (Oligochaeta: Megascolecidae): polytypic species or species complex? Organisms, Diversity & Evolution 7, 231-240.
  • Chang, C.-H., Shen, H.-P., Chen, J.-H., 2009. Earthworm fauna of Taiwan: Biota Taiwanica. National Taiwan University Press, Taipei, Taiwan, 174 pp.
  • Chang, C.-H., Lin, S.-M., Chen, J.-H., 2008. Molecular systematics and phylogeography of the gigantic earthworms of the Metaphire formosae species group (Clitellata: Megascolecidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 49, 958-968..
  • Chen, I.-H., Chang, C.-H., Chen, J.-H., 2003. The species composition and distribution of earthworms in Ilan. Chinese Bioscience 46(1), 56-65. (in Chinese with English abstract).
  • Chen, I.-H., Chang, C.-H., Chuang, S.-C., Lin, Y.-H., Chen, J.-H., 2004. The distribution of the exotic earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus in northern Taiwan and its potential impacts on soil and native earthworm populations. Chinese Bioscience 47(1), 117-126. (in Chinese with English abstract).
  • Chen, J.-H., Chuang, S.-C., 2003. A new record of the bithecal megascolecid earthworm Amynthas papilio (Gates) (Oligochaeta) from Taiwan. Endemic Species Research 5(2), 89-94.
  • Chen, J.-H., Shih, H.-T., 1996. A preliminary study of earthworms in FushanBotanical Garden. Chinese Bioscience 39(1), 52-59. (in Chinese with English abstract).
  • Chen, J.-H., Wu, J.-H., Chuang, S.-C., 2002. Alteration of earthworm species in FushanBotanical Garden. Chinese Bioscience 45(1), 76-82. (in Chinese with English abstract).
  • Chuang, S.-C., Chang, C.-H., Chen, J.-H., 2005. A review and prospect of earthworm systematic studies in Taiwan. Notes and Newsletter of Wildlifers 9 (4), 2–10. (in Chinese).
  • Chuang, S.-C., Chen, J.-H., 2002. A new record earthworm Amynthas masatakae (Beddard)(Megascolecidae: Oligochaeta) from Taiwan. Acta Zoologica Taiwanica 13(2), 73-79.
  • Chuang, S.-C., Wu, J.-C., Chang, C.-H., Chang, C.-H., Yang, K.-W., Lai, W.-S., Wu, Y.-W., Chen, J.-H., 2002. The species composition and distribution of earthworms in northern Taiwan. Chinese Bioscience 45(1), 66-75. (in Chinese with English abstract).
  • Gates, G. E., 1959. On some earthworms from Taiwan. AmericanMuseum Novitates 1941, 1-19.
  • Goto, S., Hatai, S., 1898. New or imperfectly known species of earthworms. No. 1. Annotations Zoologicae Japonenses 2, 65-78.
  • James, S. W., Shih, H.-T., Chang, H.-W., 2005. Seven new species of Amynthas (Clitellata: Megascolecidae) and new earthworm records from Taiwan. Journal of Natural History 39(14), 1007-1028.
  • Kobayashi, S., 1938. Occurrence of Perionyx excavatus E. Perrier in North Formosa. Science Report of the TohokuImperialUniversity 13, 201-203.
  • Kobayashi, S., 1939a. The earthworms from Shinchiku, FormosaI.Zoological Magazine (Tokyo) 51, 659-660. (in Japanese).
  • Kobayashi, S., 1939b. The earthworms from Shinchiku, Formosa II. Zoological Magazine (Tokyo) 51, 777-779. (in Japanese).
  • Kobayashi, S., 1940a. The earthworms from Shinchiku, Formosa III. Zoological Magazine (Tokyo), 52, 120-121. (in Japanese).
  • Kobayashi, S., 1940b. The earthworms from Shinchiku, Formosa IV. Zoological Magazine (Tokyo) 52, 274. (in Japanese).
  • Kobayashi, S., 1940c. The earthworms from Shinchiku, Formosa V. Zoological Magazine (Tokyo) 52, 390-391. (in Japanese).
  • Kobayashi, S., 1941. The distribution of terrestrial oligochaetes in western Japan. Zoological Magazine (Tokyo) 53, 371-384. (in Japanese).
  • Kuo, T.-C., 1993. On some genital markings of the Taiwan earthworm genus Pheretima Kinberg, 1867, with key to species reported from Taiwan. Special Bulletin of Department of Mathematics and Science Education, National Hualien Teacher’s College 1, 1-13. (in Chinese with English abstract).
  • Michaelsen, W., 1922. Oligochaten aus dem Rijks Museum van Natuurlijke Historie zu Leiden. Capita Zoologica 1(3), 1-68. (in German).
  • Shen, H.-P., Tsai, C.-F., 2002a. A new earthworm of the genus Pithemera (Oligochaeta: Megascolecidae) from the LanyuIsland (Botel Tobago). Journal of the National Taiwan Museum 55(2), 1-7.
  • Shen, H.-P., Tsai, C.-F., 2002b. Earthworm fauna of the LanyuIsland (Botel Tobago). Endemic Species Research 4(2), 1-8.
  • Shen, H.-P., Tsai, C.-F., 2007. A new record of the octochaetine earthworm Dichogaster saliens (Beddard, 1892) from the centro-western Taiwan. Endemic Species Research 9(1), 71-74.
  • Shen, H.-P., Tsai, C.-F., Tsai, S.-C., 2002. Description of a new earthworm belonging to the genus Amynthas (Oligochaeta: Megascolecidae) from Taiwan and its infraspecific variation in relation to elevation. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 50(1), 1-8.
  • Shen, H.-P., Tsai, C.-F., Tsai, S.-C., 2003a. Amynthas hsinpuensis (Kuo, 1995) as a synonym of Amynthas rockefelleri (Chen, 1933) (Megascolecidae: Oligochaeta). Endemic Species Research 5(1), 41-44.
  • Shen, H.-P., Tsai, C.-F., Tsai, S.-C., 2003b. Six new earthworms of the genus Amynthas (Oligochaeta: Megascolecidae) from central Taiwan. Zoological Studies 40(4), 479-490.
  • Shen, H.-P., Tsai, S.-C., Tsai, C.-F., 2005. Occurrence of the earthworms Pontodrilus litoralis (Grube, 1855), Metaphire houlleti (Perrier, 1872), and Eiseniella tetraedra (Savigny, 1826) from Taiwan. Taiwania 50(1), 11-21.
  • Shen, H.-P., Tsai, S.-C., Tsai, C.-F., Chen, J.-H., 2005. Occurrence of the earthworm Amynthas carnosus (Goto and Hatai, 1899) in the northern Taiwan. Endemic Species Research 7(1), 95-100.
  • Shen, H.-P., Tsai, S.-C., Tsai, C.-F., 2008. A new record of the exotic ocnerodrilid earthworm Eukerria saltensis (Beddard, 1895) from Taiwan. Endemic Species Research 10(1), 85-90.
  • Shen, H.-P., Chang, C.-H., Chen, J.-H., 2008. A new record of the octochaetid earthworm Dichogaster affinis (Michaelsen, 1890) from the centro-western Taiwan. Endemic Species Research 10(2), 53-57.
  • Shih, H.-T., Chang, H.-W., Chen, J.-H., 1999. A review of the earthworms (Annelida: Oligochaeta) from Taiwan. Zoological Studies 38(4), 435-442.
  • Tsai, C.-F., 1964. On some earthworms belonging to the genus Pheretima Kinberg collected from Taipei area in North Taiwan. Quarterly Journal of the TaiwanMuseum 17(1&2), 1-35.
  • Tsai, C.-F., Shen, H.-P., Tsai, S.-C., 1999. On some new species of the pheretimoid earthworms (Oligochaeta: Megascolecidae) from Taiwan. Journal of the National Taiwan Museum 52(2), 33-46.
  • Tsai, C.-F., Shen, H.-P., Tsai, S.-C., 2000a. Native and exotic species of terrestrial earthworms (Oligochaeta) in Taiwan with reference to Northeast Asia. Zoological Studies 39(4), 285-294.
  • Tsai, C.-F., Shen, H.-P., Tsai, S.-C., 2000b. Occurrence of the exotic earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus (Muller) (Glossoscolecidae: Oligochaeta) in Taiwan. Endemic Species Research 2, 68-73.
  • Tsai, C.-F., Tsai, S.-C., Liaw, G.-J., 2000. Two new species of protandric pheretimoid earthworms belonging to the genus Metaphire (Megascolecidae: Oligochaeta) from Taiwan. Journal of Natural History 34, 1731-1741.
  • Tsai, C.-F., Shen, H.-P., Tsai, S.-C., 2001. Some new earthworms of the genus Amynthas (Oligochaeta: Megascolecidae) from Mt.Hohuan of Taiwan. Zoological Studies 40(4), 276-288.
  • Tsai, C.-F., Shen, H.-P., Tsai, S.-C., 2002. A new athecate earthworm of the genus Amynthas Kinberg (Megascolecidae: Oligochaeta) from Taiwan with discussion on phylogeny and biogeography of the A. illotus species-group. Journal of Natural History 36, 757-765.
  • Tsai, C.-F., Chen, J.-H., Tsai, S.-C., Shen, H.-P., 2003. A new species of the earthworm belonging to the genus Metaphire Sims and Easton (Megascolecidae: Oligochaeta) from the northeastern Taiwan. Endemic Species Research 5(2), 83-88.
  • Tsai, C.-F., Shen, H.-P., Tsai, S.-C., 2004. Endemicity and altitudinal stratification in distribution of megascolecid earthworms in the centro-western Taiwan. Endemic Species Research 6(2), 1-17.
  • Tsai, C.-F., Tsai, S.-C., Shen, H.-P., 2004. A new gigantic earthworm of the genus Metaphire Sims and Easton (Megascolecidae: Oligochaeta) from Taiwan with reference to evolutional trends in body sizes and segment numbers of the Pheretima genus-group. Journal of Natural History 38(7), 877-887.
  • Tsai, C.-F., Shen, H.-P., Tsai, S.-C., Lee, H.-H., 2007. Four new species of terrestrial earthworms belonging to the genus Amynthas (Megascolecidae: Oligochaeta) from Taiwan with discussion on speculative synonyms and species delimitation in oligochaete taxonomy. Journal of Natural History 41(5-8), 357-379.
  • Tsai, C.-F., Shen, H.-P., Tsai, S.-C., Lin, K.-J., Hsieh, H.-L., Yo, S.-P., 2009. A checklist of oligochaetes (Annelida) from Taiwan and its adjacent islands. Zootaxa 2133, 33-48.
  • Tsai, S.-C., Shen, H.-P., Tsai, C.-F., 2000. A new pheretimoid earthworm with latero-dorsal genital papillae. Journal of the National Taiwan Museum 53(1), 7-14.

 

一般關於蚯蚓的研究

  • 吳宗正. 1977. 經濟蚯蚓養殖. 萬里程出版社. 台北.
  • 郭登志. 1987. 臺灣紅蚯蚓 (Pheretima asiatica) 之繁殖,成分分析及其對土壤之肥效. 生物科學 30, 7-15.
  • 郭登志. 1995. 臺灣北部地區 Pheretima, Bimastus Perionyx 屬蚯蚓生殖標示之超微構造. 新竹師院學報 8, 181-199.
  • 陳俊宏、莊淑君. 1997. 有土的地方就有蚯蚓. 動物園雜誌 17, 37-42.
  • Bahl, K. N., 1947. Excretion in the Oligochaeta. Biological Reviews 22(2), 109-147.
  • Chang, W.-X., Chen, D.-M., Zhao, C.-C., 2007. Functions of earthworm in ecosystem. Biodiversity Science 15(2), 142-153.
  • Chen, T.-W., Wang, C.-P., H. P.-C., 2008. A review on the impacts of the invasive earthworm, Pontoscolex corethrurus, on forest ecosystems. Quarterly Journal of Chinese Forestry 41(1), 135-148.
  • Edwards, C.A., Bohlen, P. J., 1996. Biology and ecology of earthworms. pp426, Chapman and Hall, USA.
  • Halpern, J., Schulman, N., Halpern, M., 1987. Earthworm alarm pheromone is a garter snake chemoattractant. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 510, 328-329.
  • Jiang, X.-C., Wang,-D., Halpern, M., 1989. Isolation and characterization of alarm pheromone from electric shock-induced earthworm secretion. Pharm. Biochem. and Behav. 34, 213-221.
  • Michalsen, W., 1922. Oligochatenn aus dem rijks historie zu leiden. Capita zoologica 1(3), 1-72.
  • Moment, G. B., 1953. The relation of body level, temperature, and nutrition to regenerative growth. Physiol. Zool. 26, 108-117.
  • Ressler, R. H., Cialdini, R. B., Ghoca, M. L., Kieist, S. M., 1968. Alarm pheromone in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris. Science 161, 597-599.

 

其他

  • Lin, S.-M., Chen, C.-L., Lue, K.-Y., 2002. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of the grass lizards genus Takydromus (Reptilia: Lacertidae) of East Asia. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol 22, 276-288.
  • Lin, S.-M., 2003. Phylogeny and phylogeographic studies of Takydromus in Taiwan and adjacent regions (Squamata: Lacertidae). Ph. D. Dissertation, Department of Biology, NationalTaiwanNormalUniversity, Taipei, Taiwan, 207 pp.
  • Ota, H., 1997. Historical biogeographical implications in the variation and diversity of amphibians and reptiles in Taiwan. In ‘‘The Symposium on the Phylogeny, Biogeography and Conservation of Fauna and Flora of East Asian Region,” NationalTaiwanNormalUniversity, Taipei, Taiwan, pp. 75-86.
  • Ota, H., Honda, M., Chen, S.-L., Hikida, T., Panha, S., Oh, H.-S., Matsui, M., 2002. Phylogenetic relationships, taxonomy, character evolution and biogeography of the lacertid lizards of the genus Takydromus (Reptilia: Squamata): a molecular perspective. Biol. J. Linnean Soc. 76, 493-509.
  • Shih, H.-T., Hung, H.-C., Schubart, C. D., Chen, C. A., Chang, H.-W., 2006. Intraspecific genetic diversity of the endemic freshwater crab Candidiopotamon rathbunae (Decapoda, Brachyura, Potamidae) reflects five million years of the geological history of Taiwan. Journal of Biogeography 33, 980-989.
  • Tu, M.-C., Wang, H.-Y., Tsai, M.-P., Toda, M., Lee, W.-J., Zhang, F.-J., Ota, H., 2000. Phylogeny, taxonomy, and biogeography of the oriental pitvipers of the genus Trimeresurus (Reptilia: Viperidae: Crotalinae): a molecular perspective. Zoological Science 17, 1147-1157.
  • Yeh, W.-B., Chang, Y.-L., Lin, C.-H., Wu, F.-S., Yang, J.-T., 2004. Genetic differentiation of Loxoblemmus appendicularis complex (Orthoptera: Gryllidae): speciation through vicariant and glaciation events. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 97, 613-623.

 

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